Skin and Hair Terms




Abdomen: The abdomen (belly) is an area between the rib cage and the pelvis. This area is often covered by excess hair.

Accelerator: An accelerator is a product that enhances melanin productions, allowing the skin to achieve a quicker tan. Accelerators are most effective when used a few hours after tanning or immediately after taking a shower.

Acid Mantle: An acid mantle is a combination of sebum and sweat that provides a protective coating to the skin.

Acne: is an inflammatory skin disease caused by an overproduction of bacteria or oil.that’s made evident by pimples that can appear on almost any part of the body, but are usually on the face.

Acneic Skin: is acid. It is very oily and tends to have clogged pores. It requires products which calm the sebaceous glands, normalize the acid and have disinfecting and drying ingredients such as melaleuca alternifolia, camphor, sulphur, etc.

Actinic Keratosis: An actinic keratosis is a rough, small bump that forms on the surface of the skin as a result of overexposure to the sun. It occurs more frequently in people with fair skin.

Activator: Activators are powerful and safe hair bleach ingredients. They are also known as boosters, bleach accelerators and beach boosters.

Afro Hairstyle: A tightly, thick, rounded hair style.

Age Spot: Found anywhere on the body. Is usually brown or darker than your skin, not a freckle as these are usually round, where age spots are not. Caused by sun damage or age (hence the term). Other terms used; liver spot, brown spot, hyper pigmentation, sun damage. Age spots usually occur after the age of 40.

Albinism: Albinism is a genetic defect of melanin production characterized by little to no color in the eyes, hair and skin. This condition affects people from all races.

Allergen: An allergen is a substance that causes an allergenic reaction.

Allergy: An allergy is a disorder of the immune system. Allergies can be triggered by a number of things, including plants, laundry detergents and fragrant soap, to name a few.

Alopecia: Alopecia is a condition characterized by loss of hair, particularly from the head.

Alopecia Senilis: Alopecia senilis is characterized by hair loss due to old age.

Amino Acids: Amino acids are critical to life, and have many functions in metabolism. One particularly important function is to serve as the building blocks of proteins that make up collagen and elastin—substances that give the skin its structural support. Aging and a combination of external factors (including UV light and environmental toxins) reduce the level of amino acids in the body; creams containing amino acids may help restore them.

Anagen: Anagen is a scientific term used to describe the growing phase of the hair growth cycle.



Bond (Hair):  A type of Keratin that is used to bond the hair extension with the clients hair.

Bonded Extension: Bonded extensions have a keratin polymer bond that is applied to the tip/root of the hair

Bonding: Hair bonding is a technique that involves attaching additional strands of hair to natural hair. Additional hair can be either human or synthetic.

Bacteria: Bacteria are organisms that can grow and survive in an atmosphere with little to no oxygen. These organisms frequently cause infections.

Barrier: A paper-thin layer at the top of the epidermis that provides the skin’s protective functions. It is referred as the stratum corneum.

Blackhead: An open comedon. Usually found on people with oily skin as they tend to have larger pores. The pores get plugged with keratin and sebum dirt and skin cells.The dark color is due to a buildup of oxidised melanin.

Bleach: Bleach is a term commonly used for products that remove pigment and whiten the hair via oxidation.

Blemish: A blemish is a pigment or blood based mark on the skin.Blood Capillaries: The capillaries are the smallest blood vessels you can find in your body. Their job is to distribute nutrients and oxygenated blood to the tissues of your body, and remove deoxygenated blood and cellular waste from the tissues back into the veins.

Blemished Skin: is extremely acid with very active sebaceous glands. It requires products similar to Acneic skin.

Brow Lift: A surgical procedure in which the skin of the forehead and eyebrows is tightened to eliminate sagging eyebrows or correct frown lines in the forehead.

Bulb: Term used to describe the root of the hair.



Calming: Soothing, having a sedating effect.

Catagen: is a term that refers to the cessation phase of hair growth. This phase lasts between two and three weeks.

Callus: A build-up of tough layers of skin is referred to as calluses. They can be removed with a pumice stone, or you can get them professionally removed by an esthetician.

Cellulite: Cellulite is the word used to refer to the fatty deposits that cause a dimpled or uneven appearance of the skin, usually around the thighs and buttocks.

Club Hair: Old, non-living hair that has not yet shed.

Collagen: Collagen is a natural protein found in the dermis, or middle layer of the skin. It is the most abundant protein making up about 75% of the skin. Along with elastin, collagen provides strength to the skin, giving it its form and shape and firmness. Collagen naturally breaks down over time.
Collagen / Fat Injectable Fillers: (Also called soft-tissue augmentation). A plastic surgery technique used to correct wrinkles, depressions in the skin, and/or scarring.

Cortex  Middle layer of an individual hair shaft in which the pigment of the hair is contained.

Cow Feet: The fine lines found around the eyes. They are often caused by sun exposure, however, smoking also contributes to their formation.

Cell Renewal: The process by which skin cells are born at the base of the epidermis and slowly move upward until they form a paper-thin barrier at the top of the epidermis. This indispensable new barrier guards against moisture loss and environmental damage.

Cell Renewal Factor (CRF): A measure of cell turnover, the process by which skin produces new skin cells which travel from the lowest layer of the epidermis to the top layer and then shed off the skin. This is what keeps dead cells from building up on the skins surface.

The CRF (Cell Renewal Factor) changes as we age.  Babies: 14 days; Teenagers: 21 – 28 days; Middle age: 28 – 42 days; 50 and up: 42 – 84 days.

Combination Skin: A person has combination skin if they have more than one type of skin on the face—that is, oily skin on their “T-zone” or forehead, nose and chin, and dry or normal skin type on their cheeks.

Cuticle (Nails): A cuticle is a thin piece of skin that forms around the base of the toenails and fingernails.

Cuticles (Hair): The hair cuticles form a protective layer which covers the shaft of hair. If your hair is coloured or bleached they can spread out, split or become bloated due to over processing.



Dandruff: Dandruff is a common conditionn of the scalp that leads to flaking and itching.

Dehydrated Skin: can be any skin type that has a lowered level of water content. It requires hydrating products such as collagen, elastin, hyaluronic acid, papaya, aloe vera, fig, etc. coupled with an increased water intake. It is interesting to note that skin with a high level of water content (oedema) requires the same treatment, with the addition of juniper, red vine, gold, etc., including an increased water intake.

Dermatitis : An inflammation of the skin caused by an allergic reaction or contact with an irritant. Typical symptoms of dermatitis include redness and itching.

Dermatologist: A dermatologist is a qualified specialist who specializes in hair and skin conditions.

Dermatologist Tested: A dermatologist tested product is a product that undergone skin safety trials under dermatological conditions

Dermis: The dermis is a layer of the skin located between the epidermis and the subcutaneous tissues.

Developer: A product which oxidises artificial colour pigment.

Dry Skin: has a ph of more than 5.6 and is, therefore, alkaline. The sebaceous glands are under active and do not produce the required amount of oil. It requires alkaline normalizing products which stimulate the sebaceous glands, moisturize and nourish such as papaya.

Dull Skin: is usually the result of poor circulation and inadequate nourishment. It has an abnormal accumulation of dead skin cells which give the skin that sick look. It also wrinkles quicker. The normal condition of aging skin, which has not been looked after. This skin requires professional cleansing and stimulating, exfoliating and nourishing products incorporating ingredients such as such as collagen, shark liver oil, etc.



ElASTIN: Stretchy structural proteins that allow skin to snap back into place, elastin is particularly vulnerable to sun damage.

Epidermis: The outer layer of the skin. It acts as the body’s defense against environmental assaults. The thinnest part of the epidermis is the eyelids and the thickest are the palms and soles. It can be composed of 4–5 layers depending on the region of skin. The entire epidermis is replaced by new cell growth over a period of roughly 48 days.



Face Lift: A face lift is a surgical procedure that stretches and lifts the skin of the face in order to provide a more youthful look.

Free Radicals: Are atoms, molecules or ions with unpaired electrons. It is highly unstable molecules created in the body by sunlight, cigarette smoke, and pollution that latch onto and damage cells in ways that can lead to roughness, sagging, and wrinkling.






Hyper pigmentation: A term that refers to the darkening of an areas of the skin by the abnormal access production of melanin pigmentation (colour) found in the skin. The excess melanin is caused by sun damage, acne vulgaris. A well, as the body ages, melanocytes (how melanin is produced) distribution is less controlled by the body. The sun stimulated melanocyte activity and where concentrations of cells are denser it creates symptoms such as freckles, age spots, liver spots or brown spots.

Hypo pigmentation: A melanocyte or melanin depletion or decrease in tyrosine (used by melanocytes to make melanin) causing light patches on the skin.














Melanin: A pigment that is found in all organisms. Derived from the amino acid tyrosine. The increased production of melanin is called melanogenesis. Melanin production is stimulated by UVB radiation which is DNA damage, it leads to a delayed development of a tan. It absorbs harmful UV-radiation and transforms it into energy into harmless heat.


Normal Skin is a healthy skin with a pH of 5.6. It requires routine maintenance and skin care products which have the ability to maintain it’s pH balance.




Oily Skin: has a pH of less than 5.6 and is, therefore, acid. This skin requires products which calm the sebaceous glands, balance and normalize the pH and cleanse the excessive surface oil such as cucumber.



Photoaging: Photoaging is damage to the skin caused by too much exposure to the sun.

Photosensitivity: Photosensitivity is a skin condition, manifested in rashes or swelling, that results from applying or eating certain chemicals or foods, then exposing the skin to sunlight.

Phytocosmetics: Phytocosmetics are cosmetics that are made with natural ingredients from plants.

Pore: A pore is a tiny opening in the skin that serves as an outlet for sweat.

Psoriasis: Psoriasis is a skin disease that produces dry, itchy red patches.







Rosacea: Doctors do not know the exact cause of Rosacea but believe that a combination of genetic predisposition and several types of environmental factors are related to its development. Rosacea is not contagious. Rosacea sufferers have a tendency to flush. Rosacea symptoms are redness on the cheeks, nose, chin or forehead, small visible blood vessels on the face, bumps or pimples on the face, watery or irritated eyes may be sign of Rosacea. Rosacea concealer or Rosacea cover up can help you conceal the disturbing effects of Rosacea.



Sebaceous Gland: The gland that is responsible for oil secretion. The are spread throughout the body, except for soles and palms, and are found in abundance on the scalp and face. Those with over-active glands have oily skin.

Sebum: The oily substances that is secreted from the sebaceous gland. It is made up of fat, wax, and the debris of dead fat producing cells.

Sensitive Skin has a pH balance greater or less than 5.6. The more alkaline or acidic the skin is the more sensitive it is. The more sensitive the skin is the more limited the range of products and ingredients that can be used to treat it. Generally, soothing and neutral to semi-active products are recommended such as azulen and camomile.






Undertone: Undertone is a term used to refer to the tone of the skin, like warm or cool.